Al-Jazeerah
Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Jerusalem

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

I. Introduction: Basic Information

 

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction  

 

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan 

 

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity 

 

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an

 

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth

 

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise


7.
Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?
 

 

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings  

 

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective 

 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an  

 

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure

 

1. Proclamation of Faith

 

2. Performing Islamic Prayers

 

3. Giving Zakah (Charity)

 

4. Fasting the Month of Ramadhan

 

5. Making the Haj (Pilgrimage) Journey 

 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar

 

1. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran 

 

2. Angels

 

3. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran  

 

4.  Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

 

5. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran

 

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran  

 

7. Muhammed in the Holy Quran

 

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj

 

9. Latter Day (Day of Resurrection)

 

10. Qada and Qadar: God's Foreknowledge and His Decree

 

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do

 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

 

2. The La (No) Commands

 

3. The Imperative Commands  

 

***

 

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"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

 

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

 

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an

 

Interview with

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

 

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2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

 

Islam:

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

IV. 1

 

:

 

:

 

 

1433 2011

 

Introduction to Islamic Law, (Shari'a):

 

Part I: Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands

 

 in the Holy Quran

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

Mu'harram 30th, 1433, December 25th, 2011

 

 

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaitan

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

 

Introduction

 

Islamic Shari'a (Islamic Law) represents a major component of God's Message of Guidance to humanity, as revealed through His Books and taught by His Messengers, for thousands of years.

 

In fact, the entire religion of Islam is God's Shari'a or body of laws, which are intended to guide humans in how to live happily on Earth and be also rewarded with God's content in the Hereafter. Thus, those who look for understanding Shari'a can find it contained in the Islamic teachings, in the Holy Quran and the Sunna.

 

The Islamic Shari'a is an independent discipline in Islamic universities, in which students study its various aspects in variety of courses, including principles of Shari'a and its rules.

 

There is no claim here of introducing the Shari'a to readers, as an academic discipline. Rather, the main focus is on presenting a survey of the Shari'a principles and rules, as stated in the verses of the Holy Quran. Those who are interested in further discussions, rulings, and analyses can go to the works of Muslim scholars from the various schools of thought. 

 

Part I of this article is an effort to clarify the meaning of Shari'a and to introduce some of the main categories of its principles and rules, such as those found in the direct commands of Tahreem, Nahy, and Amr.

 

Part II will be devoted to the La (No) commands in the Holy Quran, as the number of these commands is large enough to be in a separate part of this topic.

 

Part III of this topic will be devoted, Insha Allah (God's willing), to the largest category of God's commands in the Holy Quran, in which the imperative verb form is used as a command about human behaviors in various aspects of life.  [1]

 

While this author consulted with several translations of the Holy Quran available on www.tanzil.net, particularly that of the Sahih International, he is solely responsible for the translation of the meanings of the researched verses.

 

Verses Mentioning the Word "Shari'a"

 

The following are three verses of the Holy Quran, in which the word "Shari'a," another variant of it "Shir'a" and its root verb "Shara'a" are mentioned. The three verses explain the meaning of these words.

 

ٰ ٰ ٰ ۖ ۚ ۚ ﴿ 42: 13.

 

ۖ ۖ ۚ ۚ ٰ ۖ ۚ ﴿ 5: 48.

 

ٰ ﴿ 45: 18

 

(O Mu'hammed) He has ordained for you of religion what He enjoined upon Noo'h (Noah) and that which We have revealed to you, and what We enjoined upon Ibrahim, and Moussa, and 'Eissa (Abraham, Moses and Jesus) - to establish the religion and not be divided therein. Difficult for those who associate other (gods) with Allah is that to which you invite them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever turns back (to Him) (Al-Shoura, 42: 13).

 

(O Mu'hammed) And We have descended the Book (the Holy Quran) to you, with truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and dominant over it. So judge between them by what Allah has descended and do not follow their desires away from what has come to you of the truth. To each of you (Muslims and People of the Scripture), We prescribed a law and a method (of following it). Had Allah willed, He would have made you one (religious) nation, but (He has willed) to test you in what He has given you. So race to (compete in doing) good. To Allah is your return, all together, and He will inform you (of the truth about) what you were in disagreement about (Al-Maeda, 5: 48).

 

Then We put you, (O Muhammad), on a path of the matter (religion), follow it and do not follow the desires of those who do not know (Al-Jathiya, 45: 18).

 

Meanings of the Word Shari'ah

 

In interpreting Verse 42 of Sourat Al-Shoura, Chapter 13 of the Holy Quran, Al-Tabari (who died in 310 Hijriya), narrated from the companion Qutada, may Allah be pleased with both of them, that the interpretation of Shari'a is the body of rules, specifying what is allowed and what is prohibited ('halal and 'haram).

 

Al-Qurtubi (who died in 671 Hijriya), may Allah be pleased with him, elaborated on the meaning of Shari'a, saying that it is what Allah enjoined His five main Messengers, which is basically establishing His religion among people on Earth, by following His commands which allow them to do certain things and avoid doing others. The goal is straightening up their life on Earth as individuals, groups, and nations. [2]

 

The five main Messengers of God, also referred to as those with Power, are Nooh, Ibrahim, Moussa, 'Eissa, and Muhammed (Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammed), peace and blessings of God be upon all of them. They were commanded to teach people how to worship Allah, obey Him, believe in His Messengers, His Books, and the Day of Reckoning.

 

The Arabic root verb of the word "Shari'a," is "shara'a," which means to clarify and to show the way. It also means to make rules or laws. A derivative of the verb Shara'a is "shari', which is the straight road or street. So, Shari'a is the straight path, which has been clarified by Allah to guide humanity from the darkness of ignorance and misery to His light of happiness in this life and in the hereafter.

 

The core meaning of Shari'a, then, is that the term refers to the body of God's commands of various forms (prohibitions, don't do, do, no, and imperative form commands), which prescribe how we can live happily on Earth and be rewarded with everlasting life in Paradise, in the hereafter.

 

Some of these commands, for example, teach about how to worship Allah, as the only and One God, by performing prayers, giving Zakat (charitable assistance to the needy), fasting during Ramadhan, and making the pilgrimage (Haj).

 

Other commands tell us how to be close to God through good deeds, telling the truth, fulfilling promises, honesty, and being kind to people generally and to parents and relatives, in particular.

 

Shari'a commands also specify behaviors that should be avoided, such as rejection of God's truth, murder, usury,  adultery, doing harm to self and to people, unnecessary killing of animals, lying, cheating, backbiting, belittling of people, or humiliating them. 

 

 

Alloweds, Prohibitions, & In-Betweens in Islam

 

In a famous Hadith, Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh), said that (from God's teachings to us, we know that) "Allowed behaviors ('halal) are clear and prohibitions ('haram) are clear, but there are unclear things in-between, many people do not know about them, avoid them."

 

- -

 

- 29 -

52  

 

So, what are these allowed behaviors (Halal), prohibited behaviors (Haram), and in-between unclear behaviors (Mushbihat)?

 

Alloweds ('Halal)

 

Out of His love for His human creations, Allah, praise to Him, allowed everything for Adam and Eve in Paradise, except eating from a certain tree. There was only one prohibition, the violation of which led to their exit from Paradise, as a punishment.

 

But Allah, praise to Him, never abandoned human beings, and out of His love to them, He told them, through His Messengers, to do certain behaviors and avoid others, for their own good and for their benefit.

 

For example, He stated, in the Holy Quran, that He has created the Jin and the humans for the sole purpose of worshipping Him (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 56 ).

 

 ( 51: 56).

 

 ( 51: 57).

 

"And I did not create the jin and humans except to worship Me  (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 56 ).

I do not want from them any provision, nor do I want them to feed Me  (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 57 ).

 

When we analyze worshipping Allah on the three levels of Islam, Iman, and Ihsan, we find that all what we do is bringing benefits back to ourselves as individuals, families, communities, and nations.

 

So, we worship Allah by observing His commands concerning what is allowed ('Halal) and what is prohibited ('Haram), as well as being careful when addressing issues in-between.

 

What are the allowed behaviors ('Halal)?

 

Allah has allowed us to do everything that makes us happy intellectually and physically as long as we do that in moderation and avoid the harmful behaviors He has prohibited.

 

So, allowed behaviors or things ('Halal) are the rule in Islam, while prohibitions ('Haram) are the exception, as stated in the following verses of the Holy Quran.

  

( 7: 157 ).

 

ۖ ۗ ﴿ 5: 96.

 

ۚ ﴿ 7: 31.

 

ۚ ۗ ٰ ﴿ 7: 32.

 

(The Messenger of God) makes the good things (or behaviors) allowed for them (the believers) and prohibits for them the (hidden) harmful (ones) (Al-A'araf, 7: 157).

 

Allowed to you is game from the sea and its food as provision for you and the travelers, but forbidden to you is game from the land during the pilgrimage. And avoid wrath of God, to whom you will be gathered (Al-Maeda, 5: 96).

 

O children of Adam, take your adornment at every masjid (mosque), and eat and drink, but do not be excessive. He (Allah) does not like those who are excessive (Al-A'araf, 7: 31).

 

Say, "Who has forbidden the adornment of Allah and the good things of provision, which He has produced for His worshippers ?"

 

Say, "These are for those who have believed during the worldly life (but) exclusively for them on the Day of Resurrection." Thus We detail (clarify) the verses for a people who know (Al-A'araf, 7: 32).

 

I. Prohibitions ('Haram)

 

The Arabic root verb /'harrama/, to prohibit, and some of its derivatives were mentioned in the Holy Quran 53 times in 47 verses. However, there are 26 prohibitions, in nine categories, included in these verses, as 'Haram.

 

1. Meat

 

There are eleven prohibited kinds of meat, as mentioned in the following two verses of Surat Al-Maeda.

 

 

ۚ ٰ ( 5: 3).

 

ۗ  ﴿ 5: 96. 

 

Prohibited ('hurrimat) to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and (those animals) killed by strangling and by a violent blow and by a (head-long) fall and by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you (are able to) slaughter (before its death), and those which are sacrificed on (stone) altars (Al-Maeda, 5: 3).

 

And forbidden ('hurrima) to you is game from the land as long as you are in the state of ihram (during pilgrimage) (Al-Maeda, 5: 96).

 

2. Great Sins and Wrongdoings

 

There are six prohibited kinds of great sins and wrongdoings, as mentioned in the following two verses of Surat Al-A'araf.

 

﴿ 7: 33.

 

( 7: 157).

 

Say, "My Lord has only prohibited ('harrama) great sins (excessive acts of disobedience to God) - what is apparent of them and what is concealed, and sin, and transgression without a (legal) right, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down authority, and that you say about Allah that which you do not know" (Al-A'araf, 7: 33).

 

And (the Messenger of God) prohibits (yu'harrimu) for them the (hidden) harmful (things or behaviors) (Al-A'araf, 7: 157).

 

3. Forcing People out of their Homeland

 

ٰ ( 2: 85).

 

And you evict a party of your people from their homes, collaborating against them in sin and aggression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their eviction is forbidden (mu'harramun) to you (Al-Baqara, 2: 85).

 

4. Usury (Riba)

 

ۚ  ( 2: 275).

 

Allah has allowed selling (and buying) and has forbidden ('harrama) usury (riba). (Al-Baqara, 2: 275).

 

Verse 3: 130 of the Holy Quran defines usury (riba) as compound interests on a loan. It states: [3]

"O you who have believed, do not consume usury, doubled and compounded, and avoid the wrath of Allah so you may prosper"
(Al-'Imran, 3: 130).

ۖ ( 3: 130).

 

5. Killing People Without a Right, Killing Children Out of Poverty, and Mistreatment of Parents

 

ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۚ ٰ ( 6: 151).

 

ٰ ۖ  ( 6: 152).

 

Say, "Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited ('harrama) to you: That you do not associate anything with Him, and to (give) parents good treatment, and not to kill your children out of poverty; We will provide for you and them. And do not approach great sins - what is apparent of them and what is concealed. And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden ('harrama) except by a (legal) right. That is what He has instructed you that you may reason"  (Al-Ana'am, 151).

 

And do not approach the orphan's property except in a way that is best until he reaches maturity  (Al-Ana'am, 152).

 

6. Sexual Activity Outside Marriage

 

  ۚ ٰ ( 24: 3).

 

A male fornicator involves (himself) with a female fornicator or a polytheist, and a female fornicator is involved only with a male fornicator or a polytheist, and that has been made prohibited ('hurrima) to the believers (Al-Nour, 24: 3).

 

7. Makkah City, the Location of Al-Ka'aba, the 'Haram House of God

 

ٰ ( 27: 91).

 

"" " ." .

 

[Say, O Muhammad], "I have only been commanded to worship the Lord of this City (Makkah), who made it prohibited ('harramaha) (made it a sacred sanctuary) (Al-Naml, 27: 91).

 

The Prophet, pbbuh, explained the meaning of Makkah as 'Haram, saying that it is a city in which it is prohibited to shed human blood (fighting), oppress anybody, uproot its thorny plants, or hunt its game (The Hadith was mentioned by Ibn Katheer and the meaning was also mentioned by Al-Seyouti, Al-Tabari, and Al-Qurtubi).

 

8. Fighting During the 'Haram Months

  

 ( 2: 194).

 

The prohibited ('haramu) month for the prohibited month,- and so for all things prohibited,- there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, then transgress likewise against him (Al-Baqara, 2: 194).

 

Before Islam, Arabs observed a peaceful period of time, spanning the three consecutive lunar months of Dhul Qa'ada, Dhul Hijja, and Mu'harram, as well as the separate month of Rajab. During these four 'Haram months, fighting was prohibited ('Haram), as mentioned by Ibn Katheer in his interpretation of Verse 5: 2, and Verse 5: 96. This tradition of peace time was also upheld by Islam.

 

In the sixth year after Hijra (immigration to Medina), the Prophet, pbbuh, left to Makkah to perform 'Umra, a short pilgrimage, during the 'Haram (prohibited) month of Dhul Qa'ada. However, the non-believers denied him entry to the Holy City, which saddened him because he could not fight them to enter by force during the prohibited month.

 

He returned the following year, during the same month of Dhul Qa'ada and performed his 'Umra, together with many Muslims, after winning an arbitration or judgment against the non-believers of Makkah.

 

After this incident, Verse 194 of Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2 of the Holy Quran), was revealed to be a rule about fighting during the prohibited months. It stated that the prohibited months should be upheld by the believers as long as the non-believers are upholding them. However, if they transgress during these months, then believers have the right to counter their acts.

 

10. Lotting

 

It is prohibited for believers to seek divination methods in making decisions about their affairs. Rather, they should make decisions after gathering information, thinking, and reasoning.

 

( ) ... ۚ ٰ ( 5: 3).

 

And ('hurrimat, prohibited to you is) ... that you seek decision through divining arrows (Al-Maeda, 5: 3).

 

 

Commands of "Do" and "Don't Do" in the Holy Quran

 

 

In the first section of this article, I pointed to 26 major commands in which Allah, praise to Him, specified behaviors or things that believers should not do, using the Arabic root verb 'harrama, to prohibit, and its derivatives. These commands addressed issues related to food, sins, transgression, taking partners with God, falsifying about God, forcing people out of their homeland, usury, mistreatment of parents, killing of children and innocent people, fornication, sanctity of Makkah, sanctity of the four 'Haram months, and lotting.

 

This second section involves Commands of "Don't Do" (Nahy) in the Holy Quran.

 

II. Commands of Forbiddance, Desistance, or "Don't Do" (Nahy)

 

The commands of "Forbiddance," "Desistance," or "Don't Do" (Nahy) have the meaning of "Ta'hreem" or "'Haram" in Islam.

 

One piece of evidence comes from the prohibition (Ta'hreem) of usury (Riba) in Al-Baqara (2: 275), then the "Don't do" (Nahy) in Al-Nissa (4: 171).

  

ۚ   ﴿ 2: 275 ﴾

ۚ   ﴿ 4: 161 ﴾

 

 

Another piece of evidence comes from the prohibition (Ta'hreem) of taking partners with God, in Al-A'araf (7: 33), then it is expressed as a command of "Don't do" or "Forbiddance" (Nahy) in Al-Ana'am (6: 56). 

 

A third piece of evidence comes from mentioning great sins (fawa'hish) and transgression (baghi) as prohibition (ta'hreem) in 7:33 and as a "Don't Do" command (Nahy) in 16: 90.

 

   ﴿ 7: 33 ﴾

 

ٰ ٰ ۚ  ( 16: 90).

 

ۚ ۙ   ﴿   56: 6 ﴾

 

 

There are nine specific commands using the Arabic root verb /naha/, do not do, or its derivatives. These are commanding Muslims not take usury, or earn money by fraud (Al-Nissa, 4: 161), or worship other than Allah (Al-Ana'am, 6: 56), or plot sin, aggression, and disobedience to the Messenger (Al-Mujadala, 58: 8), or take as guardians those who fight them over religion, get them out of their homelands, or support those who force them out (Al-Mumtahina, 60: 9).

 

God also commands Muslims not to commit great sins, denounced acts, and transgression (Al-Na'hl, 16: 90), which were mentioned also before as prohibitions ('haram).

 

Muslims are told about the punishment of Adam and his wife for disobeying God's command of not eating from the tree (Al-A'araf, 7: 22).

 

People of the Book (Christians in this case) are commanded to stop saying that God is three. He is only One God. As for the Messiah, Jesus Son of Maryam (Mary), he is God's Messenger, His Word and part of His Spirit thrown to Maryam (Al-Nissa, 4: 171).

 

Muslims are also commanded to enjoin what the Messenger of God had told them to do and abstain from doing what he told them not to do (Al'Hashr, 59: 7). This is a command for Muslims to follow the right and strongly narrated Hadiths of the Messenger of God, pbbuh.

 

ۚ   ﴿ 4: 161 ﴾ .
 

ۚ ٰ ۖ ۖ ۚ ۚ ٰ ۖ ۘ ۗ ٰ   ﴿ 4: 171 ﴾ .

 

ۚ ۙ   ﴿  6: 56).

 

ۚ ۖ   ﴿ 7: 22 ﴾.

 

ٰ ٰ ۚ  ( 16: 90).

 

ٰ ۚ ۖ ( 58: 8).

 

ۚ ۖ ﴿ 59: 7 ﴾

 

ٰ ۚ ٰ

( 60: 9)

 

And (for) their taking of usury while they had been forbidden (nuhu) from it, and their consuming of the people's wealth unjustly. And we have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful punishment (Al-Nissa, 4: 161).

 

O People of the Book, do not commit excess in your religion or say about Allah except the truth. The Messiah, 'Eissa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), was but a Messenger of Allah and His Word which He directed to Maryam and a Soul from Him. So believe in Allah and His Messengers. And do not say, "Three." Desist (intahu), it is better for you (not to say that). Indeed, Allah is One God. Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the Earth. And sufficient is Allah as (your) Patron (Al-Nissa, 4: 171).

 

Say, "Indeed, I have been forbidden (nuheetu) to worship those you invoke besides Allah." Say, "I will not follow your desires, for I would then have gone astray, and I would not be of the guided" (Al-Ana'am, 6: 56).

 

Thus, he led them on with deception. And when they tasted (of) the tree, their shame (of nakedness) became manifest to them, and they began to cover themselves with leaves of Paradise. And their Lord called them, (saying): Did I not forbid you (anhakuma) from that tree and tell you that the Shaitan (Satan) is to you a clear enemy? (Al-A'araf, 7: 22).

 

Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids (yanha) great sins, denounced acts, and transgression. He admonishes you so that you may remember (Al-Na'hl, 16: 90).

 

Have you not considered those who were forbidden (nuhu) from private conversation, then they return to that which they were forbidden and converse among themselves about sin and aggression and disobedience to the Messenger? And when they come to you, they greet you with that (word) by which Allah does not greet you and say among themselves, "Why does Allah not punish us for what we say?" Sufficient for them is Hell, which they will burn in, and wretched is that destination (Al-Mujadala, 58: 8).

 

And whatever the Messenger has given you - take; and what he has forbidden you (nahakum) - refrain from. And avoid the wrath of Allah. Indeed, Allah is severe in punishment (Al-'Hashr, 59: 7).

 

Allah only forbids you (yanhakum) from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and collaborate in your expulsion - that you take them as your gurdians. And those who take them as guardians are the oppressors (Al-Mumta'hina, 60: 9).

 

IIII. Commands of Do, using the word "command" or "order" (Amr)

 

Believers are commanded to do things that are good for them in this life, which will also be rewarded in the hereafter. Here are twenty-one of them, from verses using the Arabic root verb /Amara/, to command, and its derivatives:  

 

And they ask you about menstruation. Say, "It is harm, so keep away from women (your wives) in menstruation. And do not approach them until they are purified (cleaned of it). And when they have purified, come to them from where Allah has commanded you (amarakum). Allah loves those (who are) repentant and loves those (who are) purified" (Al-Baqara, 2: 222). [4]

 

Allah commands you (ya-murukum) to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice. Excellent is that which Allah instructs you. Allah is Hearer and Seer (Al-Nissa, 4: 58).

 

I did not say to them except what You commanded me (amartani) with - to worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them as long as I was among them; (but) when You completed (my record on Earth), You were the Watcher over them, and You are, over everything, Witness (Al-Maeda, 5: 117). 

 

Say (O Muhammed), "(who) other than Allah (you want me) to take as a protector (guardian)? (He is the) Originator of the heavens and the Earth, and Who feeds (but) is not fed." Say, "I have been commanded (omirtu) to be the first (among you) who submit (to Allah, by being a Muslim) and (have been commanded): 'Do not be of the polytheists' " (Al-Ana'am, 6: 14).

 

 Say, the guidance of Allah is the (true) guidance, and we have been commanded (omirna) to submit (be Muslims) to the Lord of the worlds (Al-Ana'am, 6: 71).

 

 Say, (O Muhammad), "My Lord has commanded (amara) justice and that you maintain (prayers) at every place of prostration (mosque), and call Him, sincere to Him in religion." Just as He originated you, you will return (Al-A'araf, 7: 29).

 

They have taken their clergy and monks as lords besides Allah, and the Messiah, the Son of Maryam (Mary). And they were not commanded (omiru) except to worship one God; there is no deity except Him. Exalted is He above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Tawba, 9: 31).

 

 Say, (O Muhammad), "O people, if you are in doubt of my religion, then I do not worship those which you worship other than Allah; but I worship Allah, who receives you when you die. And I have been commanded (omirtu) to be of the believers (Younus, 10: 104).

 

 So straighten up (remain on the right course), as you have been commanded (omirta), and those with you who have repented, and do not transgress (do not be excessive). Indeed, He is Seeing of what you do (Hood, 11: 112).

 

You do not worship other than Him except names you have named, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. Legislation is not by any except  Allah. He has commanded (amara) that you worship none except Him. That is the correct religion, but most people do not know (Yousuf, 12: 40).

 

And those who join that which Allah has commanded (amara) it to be joined and fear their Lord and are afraid of the worst (at the time of) reckoning (Al-Ra'ad, 13: 21).

 

Say, "I have been commanded (omirtu) to worship Allah and not associate (anything) with Him. To Him I invite, and to Him is my return" (Al-Ra'ad, 13: 36).

 

 Allah commands (ya-muru) justice, and good conduct, and giving to relatives, and forbids great sins (fahsha), and denounced overt conducts (monker), and transgression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will remember (Al-Na'hl, 16: 90).

 

 And command (wa-mur) your family to (perform) prayer and be patient (in doing so). We do not ask you for provision, We provide for you, and the (best) outcome is for piety (Taha, 20: 132).

 

(Say, O Muhammed), "I have only been commanded (omirtu) to worship the Lord of this city, who made it sacred, and to whom (belong) all things. And I have been commanded (omirtu) to be of the Muslims (those who submit to Allah) (Al-Naml, 27: 91).

 

 Say, (O Muhammad), "Indeed, I have been commanded (omirtu) to worship Allah, (being) sincere to Him in religion (Al-Zumar, 39: 11). 

 

And I have been commanded (omirtu) to be the first (among you) of the Muslims" (Al-Zumar, 39: 12).

 

And I have been commanded (omirtu) to submit (be a Muslim) to the Lord of the Worlds (Ghafir, 40: 66).

 

So to that (religion of Allah) invite, (O Muhammad), and straighten up (remain on the right course), as you have been commanded (omirta), and do not follow their desires,  and say, "I have believed in what Allah has revealed of a Book (the Holy Qur'an), and I have been commanded (omirtu) to do justice among you (Al-Shoura, 42: 15).

 

And they were not commanded (omiru) except to worship Allah, (being) sincere to Him in religion, inclining to truth (hunafa), and to establish prayer and to give zakah. And that is the correct religion (Al-Bayina, 98: 5).

 

ۖ ۖ ٰ ۖ ۚ   ( 2: 222).

 

ٰ ۚ ۗ (  4: 58). 

 

ۚ ۖ ۚ ٰ   ( 5: 117).

 

ۗ ۖ   ( 6: 14).

 

ٰ ۖ   ( 6: 71).

 

ۖ ۚ   ( 7: 29).

 

ٰ ۖ ٰ ۚ   ( 9: 31).

 

ٰ ۖ   ( 10: 104).

 

ۚ ( 11: 112).

 

ۚ ۚ ۚ ٰ ٰ ( 12: 40).

 

 ( 13: 21).

 

ۚ   ( 13: 36).

 

ٰ ٰ ۚ  ( 16: 90).

 

ۖ ۖ ۗ ٰ ( 20: 132).

 

ٰ ۖ ( 27: 91).

 

( 39: 11).

 

( 39: 12).

 

( 40: 66).

 

ٰ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ  ( 42: 15).

 

ۚ ٰ  ( 98: 5).

 

 

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Notes:

 

[1]  Some early Muslim scholars classified these commands (in the imperative verb form) by subject, as was the case with Imam Nawawi (may Allah be pleased with him, he died in 671 Hijria, 1272 Gregorian) in his famous book of "Riyadh Al-Saliheen." His work, though, focused on Hadith, not on the Holy Quran.

 

Arabic Quran indexes, in paper or electronic forms, can help researchers search the Holy Quran by subject. However, such searches may not be exhaustive.

 

It seems that the only way to conduct an exhaustive search of God's commands, using the imperative verb form, by subject, is by searching the Holy Quran, verse by verse.

 

 

[2]  The following is the Arabic text of Al-Qurtubi's interpretation of Verse 13 of Surat Al-Shoura (Chapter 42), which explains the word, Shari'a. It summarized in English above.

 

: : " " ; : " " , , . , ; : " " [ : 48 ] . " " . . : . . . . : , : . . " " " " , , " " . : , . : " " ; : . " " . " " ; : , . : : : ( . .. ) , ; , , , ; , , - - , ; ; , , , , , , , , ; , ; : " " ; ; ; " " [ : 10 ] . . . : , ; , . : . : . . .

 

[3] Verse 3: 130 of the Holy Quran defines usury (riba) as compound interests that leads to doubling a loan's principal. This was interpreted as exceeding 9% of interests by the Ottoman government, in 1887, and 7% by the current governments of Iran and Pakistan. However, even with a lower interest rate, a loan is considered usurious (riba) if the compounded interests exceed doubling of the loan principal (Usury and Islamic Economics and Finance: A Different View By Hamed Al-Homoud Al-Ajlan. Arabic, pages 103-110).

 

[4]  In this verse (2: 222), men are commanded to come to women from where Allah has commanded them. While the verse does not state where that is, it refers to two previously mentioned verses in Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2 of the Holy Quran), which give a clarification.

 

Verse 2: 187 allows Muslims to have sexual activity during the nights of fasting.

 

Verse 2: 189 tells Muslim men to come to their homes from the front doors, not from the back doors.

 

Further, Verse 21 of Al-Room (Chapter 30) and Verse 6 of Al-Talaq (Chapter 65), refer to women as the homes or dwellings of men.

 

Thus, men are commanded to enter their homes (their women) from the front door (vaginal intercourse), not from the back door (anal intercourse), because this is as harmful as intercourse during menstruation.

 

 

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* Dr. Hassan Ali El-Najjar has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Georgia, USA. He is also a native speaker of Arabic.

 

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